By the end of the 20th century only 10 percent of all issued patents owned by women. If you make a list of the most famous inventions over the past few centuries, the authors of these inventions will be very few women. And it's not that women do not know how to invent, or they have no creative flair, but they face many obstacles in obtaining "credit" for their ideas.
Take, for example, the case of Sybil Masters (Sybilla Masters), a woman who lived in the American colonies. After observing the work of Indian women, she invented a new way to turning corn into cornmeal. Sybil went to England in order to obtain a patent for his idea, however, under existing laws when women were forbidden to have their property, including intellectual. Such property is usually owned by a woman or her father or her husband. In 1715 a patent for its invention yet been issued, the document was the name of her husband. Such property laws did not allow many women to acquire patents for their inventions. Women are also less likely to receive and receive technical training that would help them to generate great ideas and make them a real product. Many women are faced with prejudice and ridicule when they sought help from the men in the implementation of their ideas. Mary Keith (Mary Kies) was the first American woman filed a patent in his name. In 1809, she developed a method of weaving straw hats that were the economic boon to New England. Given a document in his name, Mary, thus, paved the way for other women - to inventors in order to be entitled to patent their ideas. Below is a list of 10 items, whose authors are women.
In the late 18th century came the Protestant religious sect known as Shakers. The main values of this sect were communal living, gender equality and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt (Tabitha Babbitt) lived in sheykerskom community in Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810 she came up with a way to ease the load on the work of their brethren. She noticed that men are sawing logs special saw with two handles, which need to pull forward and back. While the burden on both men was the same, sawed logs only when the saw is moved forward and backward movement in a log, nothing happened. Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and created a prototype of a circular saw, which later was used in the sawmill industry. She came up with a saw with a circular blade, so every move made sense. However, because of the commandments of the community, Babbitt did not receive a patent for his invention.
Chocolate chip cookies
There is no doubt that many culinary masterpieces are born by accident, but among them is to select one of the most enduring and delicious - chocolate chip cookies.
Ruth Wakefield (Ruth Wakefield) was a doctor, nutritionist and lecturer in food before it, together with her husband bought an old house-post at the outpost in the suburbs of Boston. Traditionally, such houses were a place where weary travelers pay tolls, snack and feed the horses. Ruth and her husband have turned this place into a hotel with a restaurant. One day in 1930, Ruth was baking cookies for the residents of the hotel, in which the prescription was necessary to add the melted chocolate, but the woman was in a hurry, so she took the usual chocolate Nestle, broke it into small pieces and added to the dough, considering that during the baking melted chocolate itself. Instead, the chocolate has acquired a special form and thus saw the birth of chocolate chip cookie.
Company Nestle said that sales of its chocolate grew up in Massachusetts. Company representatives met with Wakefield to talk about her cookies, which very quickly gained a reputation among tourists. At the suggestion of Ruth, they have added to its line of chocolate for more than a simple fracture, and then in 1939 began selling cookies factory production, while Ruth was a recipe printed on the reverse side of the package. In exchange, the woman received a life for free chocolate.
Bette Nesmith Graham (Bette Nesmith Graham) was not a good typist. However, high dropout rates of college students, which has touched and led the girl to the secretariat of the Bank of Texas, where she became executive secretary of the chairman of the bank. This was the beginning of the 1950s, electric typewriter had just been put into operation. But secretaries often had to retype the whole page of text because of one little mistake, as used at the time the carbon strip could not fix the error.
Once Graham watched as workers applied a holiday picture on the window of the bank. She noticed that they were wrong, they are just another layer of paint on top to "close" error. Seeing this, she decided that she will be able to apply this idea in their work. Using a blender, she mixed the paint with water-based dye that was used in her typewriter. The mixture she had taken with him to work, and she was able to seamlessly with the fine watercolor brush to correct any errors in the printed document it. Soon, other secretaries began to demand the product, which is produced by Graham's own kitchen. Graham was fired from his job for waste much time on the distribution of their goods, which she called "no fault". However, being unemployed, she was able to improve its product, renaming it to "liquid paper" and get it patented in 1958. Although typewriters have been replaced by computers, many people still use white liquid - a proofreader.
Compiler and programming language COBOL
computer technology, we tend to call them names, like Charles Babbage (Charles Babbage), Alan Turing (Alan Turing) and Bill Gates. However, Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (Grace Murray Hopper) deserves credit for her role in computer industry. Admiral Hopper began to serve in 1943, while she was at Harvard University, where he worked on the creation of a computer IBM Harvard Mark I, which was the first large-scale computer in the United States. She was the third person in the project, while Grace has written guidance on operations, which was used by her followers. In 1950, Admiral invented the compiler, which transformed the British team into machine code. This meant that programmers can now write code more easily and with fewer errors.
The other compiler Hopper, Flow-Matic, was used for programs UNIVAC I and II, who supported first appeared in the sale of computers. Admiral Hopper also oversaw the development of a common business oriented language COBOL, which was one of the first computer programming language. Admiral Hopper received numerous awards for her work, in addition, it was named after an American warship.
When Martha Coston (Martha Coston) was widowed in 1847, she was only 21 years. In her arms had four children, and she had not the slightest idea of what to do next and what to feed them. One evening she leafing through a notebook her deceased husband, and found there a plan to create a flare system that could be used by ships to communicate with each other at night. Coston requested the relevant bodies about how to check the system to work, but it is not possible, but Coston was irresistible.
The next 10 years she spent in the fact that the process of upgrading the system and design crafted by her husband devices. She consulted with scientists and officers, but still could not figure out how to make flash were bright and durable, while were simple to use. One night she brought her children into the street to look at those fireworks, then something in her head and had an idea about how to apply some fireworks of its technology in the flare system.
The flare system finally worked, and the U.S. Navy bought the rights to it. Colored flares Coston widely used during the Civil War. But, unfortunately, the flare system was not the best way for women to feed their children. According to military documents, Coston made for the Navy during the Civil War, about 1200000 missiles, which it had provided them at cost. She had to pay 120 000 dollars, of which she had received only 15,000, and, as she wrote in her autobiography, the Navy refused to pay her the full amount due to the fact that she was a woman.
Margaret Knight (Margaret Knight) did not invent paper bag, but the first paper bags were not so useful for carrying things. They were more like the envelopes, so there was no possibility of their use for food, that is something we know them now, they are not immediately apparent. For this we should thank the Knight. It is understood that such packages should be a big area of the bottom, then the weight evenly distributed to, and could accommodate such a package would have more things.
In 1870, she created a wooden apparatus which was cut out and glued the square base of paper bags. While Knight was working on a prototype unit of the iron, only to patent his invention, she found that her idea of stealing a man named Charles Annan (Charles Annan), who saw her wood invention a few months earlier. She filed a lawsuit against Annan, who argued that it is impossible for a woman was able to invent such a complex in the car. Knight picked up all his sketches, drawings and notes, in the end she was able to prove the contrary and obtain a patent for the device in 1871.
However, it was the first patent, which got her so hard, but not the first patent in her life. At age 12, she developed automatically stops the industrial machinery unit, if something went wrong, which helps prevent many injuries. Knight has received more than 20 patents.
We can assume that the dishwasher invented the man who has spent years standing over the sink and washing out the mountain of dishes, lamenting the wasted time wasted. In fact, Josephine Cochrane (Josephine Cochrane), who received a patent on the first working the dishwasher, do not spend so much time washing dishes. Real incentive for its invention is the fact that one day after a beautiful lunch of its employees while cleaning the kitchen broke wonderful Chinese porcelain set that was very dear to her.
Cochrane was a secular figure, which she loved having fun, but after her husband died in 1883 She left with a huge amount of debt. Rather than sell its numerous relics, she focused on creating a machine that could wash them well, without harming them. Her car, based on the work which was aimed at vessels under intense pressure stream of water, allowed her to obtain a patent for the device in 1886. The woman claimed to invent the car was much easier than move it to the masses. First, it failed invention of individual consumers, because many families had no hot water systems, which are necessary for operation of the machine, and those who were not willing to pay for what women have done for free.
Undaunted by this failure and, She began to search for meetings with the directors of the major hotels and restaurants, telling them that the dishwasher can do the job for which they paid dozens of workers. Over time, however, more and more families began to acquire its own unit to private usage.
At the dawn of the 20th century, Mary Anderson (Mary Anderson) first visited New York. She saw that New York City, which is very different from what they see tourists today. Then, there were no endless traffic jams and unbelievable number of cars that are infinite and meaningless signals to each other in a vain attempt to drive faster. In those days cars still have not captured the imagination of the U.S. and were quite rare. However, a woman from Alabama, having gone then in New York, invented what became the standard for each vehicle. During his visit, Anderson was riding a tram through the snowy city.
She drew attention to the fact that the driver has to stop every few minutes to clean the windshield of snow. While all drivers are used to do, so when he went to rain or snow, it was a real attack, which had to deal. After returning home, Anderson has developed a special holder on the spindle, which was using the handle attached to the outside of the windshield. When the driver had to clean the glass, he just pulled the handle of the device and removes dirt from the windshield. Anderson received a patent for his device in 1903, but only 10 years later, thousands of Americans were traveling by car with its invention.
Romantic relationships at a distance often questioned, however, Rachel Fuller Brown (Rachel Fuller Brown) and Elizabeth Lee Hazen (Elizabeth Lee Hazen) were able to prove that the professional relationship at a distance can lead to productive results. Both women worked at the New York State Department of Health in 1940, but Hazen was in New York, and Brown was in Albany. Despite the miles separating them, they cooperated in establishing the first successful drug-fighting fungus.
In New York City experienced a Hazen soil samples in order to check whether the interfaces of any of the organisms and fungi. If she managed to find some activity in the soil, it should send the specimen to my colleague, whose task was to extract from the soil organism that caused the reaction. As soon as Brown would have found the active ingredient, she should send the sample back to Hazen, so that she checked it again in the presence of fungi. If the body is able to kill fungi, it should be evaluated for toxicity. Most samples were too toxic for humans, but, finally, Brown and Hazen ran into an effective body that kills fungi and safe for humans. It happened in 1950.
They called his drug nystatin. Currently the drug is sold under various trade names, and he treats fungal infections that affect skin, genitals and intestines.
It was supposed to be just a temporary job. Stephanie Kwolek (Stephanie Kwolek) began working in the DuPont company in 1946 in order to accumulate enough money to study at the Medical College. In 1964, she was still in the same place of work, exploring how to make the polymers in heavy-duty synthetic fibers. Kwolek has worked with polymers whose molecules are rod-shaped and lined up in one line.
Compared with the molecules that form the mixed systems, Kwolek believed that the sharp lines, which line up molecules that do conceived her material is stronger. Moreover, it is all true even though these polymers are very difficult to dissolve in a liquid, which can then be tested. Later she was able to finally create a solution with rod-shaped molecules, but the resulting solution was it significantly different from all other previously received Stephanie.
The next step it was to be the transmission fluid through a special machine that produces the fabric. However, the operator of spunbond machines are not allowed to use the device Kwolek, because it received a mixture of totally different from that used previously on it, and he feared that the machine can break down.
Yet Kwolek insisted and after the process Kwolek was as solid as steel fiber . This material called Kevlar, and is currently used for the production of skis, radial tires, brake pads, cables for suspension bridges, helmets, etc. Specifically, Kevlar is used to make bulletproof vests, so even though that was not Kwolek went to study at medical school, she, nevertheless, managed to save many lives.